You will have 3 minutes to read the passage.
Speed limits are used in most countries to regulate the speed of on-road motor vehicles. There are several reasons for governments doing this, such as keeping travel sate, protecting the environment and reducing the cost of fuel.
Enacting speed limits is often done with the intention of improving road safety and reducing the number of traffic casualties from collisions. Data in 1974 showed that speed limits could reduce traffic accidents. In an international report on road traffic injury prevention, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified speed control as one of the various interventions most likely to reduce road casualties.
Speed limits may also be set in an attempt lo reduce the environmental impact of road traffic, such as vehicle noise, vibration, and carbon emissions, as welt as to adhere to local community demands. Speed limits are often in response (o environmental concerns. They can be used to improve local air quality or tackle other factors affecting the environment. The European Union is also increasingly using speed limits in response to environmental concerns.
In addition, lower speed limits are effective at saving fuel. Some cities have reduced limits in certain areas to as little as 30 km/h (19 mph) for fuel efficiency reasons. Significant fuel savings can be achieved by encouraging drivers to maintain a consistent low speed, commonly referred to as “eco-driving. For instance, some European countries have already succeeded in “eco-driving” practices. This works due to effective enforcement of speed limits. Sometimes, however, drivers ignore this easy way to conserve fuel.
托福综合写作要求：Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on points made in the reading passage.
The passage gives several reasons for government to support limiting the speed of motor vehicles on roads. For instance, the speed limits can keep travel safe, protect the environment and cut the cost of fuel. On the other end of the debate, the professor says imposing speed limits is not the only way to improve road safety, and in fact it can cause many other issues.
To begin the passage describes a World Health Organization report from 1974 that found speed limits could greatly reduce the number of accidents on tine road. However, the professor cites other data in the lecture to support his position that excessive speed is not the major cause of traffic accidents, but that collisions are more likely to result from the surroundings and other environmental factors such as road conditions, visibility, high wind, or extreme temperature.
Next, the passage posits that lower speed limits can help to reduce vehicle noise, vibration, and carbon emissions. Also, it can help improve air quality and the environment of the areas surrounding roads. The professor is unconvinced, and suggests several other ways to reduce pollution and noise, such as turning cars off in heavy traffic, choosing better fuel, and even buying a more fuel-efficient car.
The last argument is that reducing speeds helps drivers out by saving them money on the cost of fuel. The passage mentions several European countries which have seen great success with “eco-driving” practices. But what about the lorry drivers, the professor asks. The lorry drivers will inevitably spend more time traveling on the road because of the lower speed limits. In turn, labor costs will be increased. In this way, speed limits can have a negative impact on the economy。
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