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手把手教你托福听力如何记笔记

2017-01-20 13:28来源:镇江新航道精英教育编辑:镇江新航道精英教育中心

大家都知道托福听力记笔记很重要,那到底应该怎么记?不要小看记笔记哦,记笔记有很多窍门哦,有很多很多同学根本都不会!

  一、托福阅读笔记

  有人说,如果听力足够好,不看阅读文章也可以。然而,如何定义“足够好”呢?TPO听力部分得满分算吗?答案是“当然不算”。听力部分利用固定的出题点和题目结构去辅助筛选重要信息,主要考查的是对大意的把握。然而,综合写作部分的听力材料难度已经很低了,怎么可能听个大概就放过诸位呢?

  根据《托福考试官方指南》提供的策略,阅读部分应该记“观点”而非“细节”。

  用笔记下阅读文章中的supportingideas对于我们听力部分有很好的促进作用,听力讲座中的反驳可以绕开阅读文章中的supporting details,但怎样也绕不开supporting ideas。找到了阅读文章的各个要点后,考生可以对听力讲座的分论点进行预测,虽然不会太精确,但是可以指出一个大概的分方向。

  As you read:

  Take notes on your scratch paper.

  Look for the main idea of the reading passage. The main ides often has to do with some policy or practice or some position on an issue. Or it may have to do with proposing some overall hypothesis about the way some process or procedure works or should work or how some natural phenomenon is believed to work.

  See how this main idea is evaluated or developed.

  You do not need to memorize the reading passage. It will reappear on your computer screen when it is time to write.

  Note points in the passage that either support the rain idea or provide reasons to doubt the main idea. Typically the main idea will be developed with three points.

  1 首段

  记下话题(topic)与主题阐述(thesis statement)(话题多出现在前面,而主题陈述多位于首段结尾)。

  例如TPO7这篇阅读文章的thesis statement就不出意料地出现在首段段尾。

  示例:

  In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices ,an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials .Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their product as eco-certified. Around the world .many wood companies have adopted new ,ecologically friendly practices in order to receive eco-certification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United Stated will do the same .forseveral reasons.

  2 分支各段

  找出分论点(supportingideas),记下2~4个要点(key factors)(多位于各段段首)。

  切记,千万不要把supporting details作为supporting ideas提取出来。考生总是难以压抑住对supporting details的重视,在提取ideas的时候会不自觉地把details搅和进来。如果用details当ideas,就会在听力讲座中发现ideas对应不上了,因为并非所有听力讲座都是会反驳阅读文章的细节的。

  ideas应该是被提炼出来的看法,而不是一些起支撑作用的信息。因此,自查details的方法就是它是否支持thesis statement。有的时候supporting ideas是thesis statement的一部分(下面这段文章就是一个典型的例子),有的时候supporting ideas从不同方面支持thesis statement。但是如果提取的是details,就没有这样直接的逻辑关系,则不必做笔记。

  示例:

  First, American consumers are exposed to so advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the eco-certification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled “new” or “improved” , American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.

  Second ,eco-certified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn eco-certification, a wood company must pay to have in business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers—American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price ,and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain eco-certification.

  Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world .this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case –American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.

  这篇阅读文章的supporting ideas提炼难度不是很大,关键是理解几个要点之间的逻辑,就能从听力讲座中快速精准地提取有用信息。

  Supporting Idea 1

  exposed to so much advertising→do not place much trust

  Supporting Idea 2

  more expensive→company, pay→pass on to consumers→choose cheaper

  Supporting Idea 3

  only if, market, abroad, businesses, sell most in US

  3 格式

  正如之前所说,由于听力讲座中的反驳可以绕开阅读文章中的supporting details,但怎么也绕不开supporting ideas。然而,在做笔记时绝对无法克服“记的同时漏掉了一些细节”的现象。

  因此,我们建议不必完全将阅读笔记和听力笔记分开,相反,听力讲座的反驳可以使用在阅读文章笔记上进行标注的方式来记录,以达到争取更多时间记细节的目的。格式如下所示:

手把手教你托福听力如何记笔记

  (2)做笔记可以用英语,也可以用汉语,也可以英汉参半。要关注反复出现的词汇,尤其是主题中的生词,可以在心中默想一下它的大概发音,因为它在听力部分还会出现。  Tips:

  (1) 在开始听前可以先画好方框,这样笔记结构清晰。

  (3) 注意概念性学术词汇或人名、地名等专有名词,不知道这些词的具体意思没有关系,但是听力部分如果听到就属于重要细节,即使借助发音猜测也要记全词。

  (4) 一定要记笔记,不要以为自己听懂的就不用记。综合写作不仅仅是完成几道选择题,该部分的细节显得十分重要。即使是记忆力不错的人,写10分钟作文后也可能忘得差不多了。

 

  二、听力笔记

  根据《托福考试官方指南》提供的策略,综合写作中的听力部分需要记下“细节”。

  As you listen :

  Take notes on your scratch paper .

  Listen for information ,examples ,or explanations that make points in the reading passage seem wrong or less convincing or even untrue.

  ------以上内容摘自《托福考试官方指南》

  1 各分支段开头

  听懂讲座对阅读文章中各要点的反驳(详见1.3综合写作反驳体系),关注序数词(first, second, third)、表并列的词(another, also, besides, in addition等)、表转折的词(but,yet, however等)之后的句子,并在阅读笔记的要点上加以标注。

  2 各分支段展开

  记细节,如:举例(example)、因果(cause and effect)、数字(figures)。

  3 笔记格式

  可在阅读笔记中supportingideas的各要素上直接用×去标注听力讲座所反驳的要点。

  在阅读笔记的留白部分,记下听力讲座中的support details。

  三、符号和缩写

  适当地使用符号和缩写,目的依然是为了能够记下尽多可能多的细节。在做笔记的过程中,可以选择自己习惯的缩写,使笔记更加简洁。避免因为对个别词汇的纠结影响整体信息的提取。

  四、综合写作的反驳体系

  综合写作部分的要求反复强调需要准确地阐述听力讲座与阅读文章之间的关系,如果仅仅只听出“反驳”或“同意”,则被认为是很含糊的。

  例如:对于上面例子中Supporting Idea 1所陈述的“美国消费者由于接触太多的广告以至于对广告上的环保认证不信任”,听力讲座可能指出“美国消费者由于接触的广告并不多”,亦可指出“美国消费者虽然接触很多的广告但并不会对广告上的环保认证不信任”,也可能指出“美国消费者虽然接触很多的广告但并不会对所有广告上的环保认证都不信任”,抑或是指出“如果美国消费者由于接触很多的广告而对广告上的环保认证并不信任,那么……,但是……”。这些不同的反驳体系,无法用同一句话笼统地表述清楚。

  对此,我们列出4种常见的反驳体系和常见的supporting detail类型。

手把手教你托福听力如何记笔记

 

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