Marsupial 和 placenta 哪种更适应环境?
M生出来以后，organ continue to develop, mother’s milk protect them from infection
M control tem, they lower tem on purpose, 这样可以less energy, less food
M 和 P一起生活在澳大利亚，但现在只有M，所以M在竞争中获胜。说明M比P更适应环境
An effective leader should try to make others feel that they are part of the decision making process.
2013年1月12日托福独立写作真题范文：An effective leader should try to make others feel that they are part of the decision making process.
To effectively manage a team or a business, we need a leader. Some people claim that an effective leader should make his or her subordinates feel that they are also decision makers, believing that this will give them a sense of belonging, which may make them work more spontaneously and conscientiously. Although there is some element of truth in the statement, I still believe that in most cases an effective leader is an authoritarian leader who make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.
To begin with, there are situations where there is little time for group discussion so it is unrealistic for a leader to make others feel that they participate the decision-making process. When situation is urgent, an effective leader should have the ability and courage to make the final decision.
Besides, when the leader is the most knowledgeable and visionable person in a group, it is more productive when the leader give direct instructions telling those employees what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. For example, when Steve Jobs first put forward the idea of iPad, his co-workers opposed his suggestion, saying that iPad is not a computer nor a cellphone, nobody would buy it. However, Jobs insisted that iPad be created and launched on to the market. Now the result is obvious. People of different ages love iPad. This example best illustrates that effective leaders do not have to let subordinates feel that they are also the decision-maker. Most subordinates do not have the foresight and sagacity, the best thing for them to do is to follow their sagacious leader.
Last but not least, if team members feel that they are also decision-makers then there is a possibility that those team members demand equal pay as the leader, or they have the delusion that they are as capable as their leader.
From the above discussion, we can draw the conclusion that running a company or regulating an organization is not an easy task. Sometimes leaders should let employees feel that they are involved in the decision-making process, but in most cases, to guarantee the effective running of a company or an organization, an successful leader should have the guts and ability to make various decisions alone